A representative said the pair were "committed to raising their son together lovingly".
Adele gave birth to her son, Angelo, in 2012. She married Konecki - an investment banker turned charity boss - in 2016 after five years of dating.
The best-selling north London-born artist is known for her chart-topping albums 19, 21 and 25.
The statement added that the couple, who announced their separation in April, were asking for privacy and there would be no further comment.
The divorce papers were lodged at a court in Los Angeles.
They married in a secret ceremony in 2016, with Adele publicly addressing the wedding for the first time during an acceptance speech at the 2017 Grammys, where she thanked her husband.
The singer's debut album, which was released in 2008 and featured hits including Chasing Pavements and Hometown Glory, reached number one in the UK.
She went on to win a string of awards and her follow-up, 21, topped the charts in 30 countries including the US and the UK.
Her third album, 25, sold a record-breaking 800,000 copies in its first week and became the best-selling album of 2015.
Recent reports suggest Adele is recording new music, and the 31-year-old was pictured entering a recording studio in New York City in March.
Konecki, 45, left his job at Lehman Brothers in 2005, and founded the ethical water company Life Water. The firm and its charity partner Drop 4 Drop "fund clear water projects across the globe".
"I was originally an investment banker at Lehman Brothers and I was doing well and earning a lot of money, but I got sick of that greedy and corrupted world," he told Management Today in 2012.